Остогер. Материалы по истории Кардолана

См. также:

Азрафэль (при участии Анариэль Ровэн). "Валар нам дали над низшими власть..." или о нумэнорском шовинизме

Анариэль Ровэн. О границах Гондора

Тэлпэ. Значение термина «магия» в мире Арды. «Магия» у эльфов и людей


Кардолан (Кардоланское княжество [1]) - государство, возникшее в середине IX в. Т.Э. в Эриадоре; прекратило существование в первой половине XVII в. Т.Э.

   Этимология топонима. Слово Кардолан - эльфийского (синдарского) происхождения, данное, возможно, нуменорцами Арнора [2]. Исследователи дают ему различные толкования, например: "страна красных камней" [3], "красная вершина" [4].

   География. Земли Кардолана лежали в южном Эриадоре; границами княжества были р. Барандуин (на западе), р.р. Безбрежная и Буйная (на востоке) и Великий Западный Тракт (на севере) [5]. В пределах Кардолана находились такие известные исторические местности как

  • Минхириат - равнинная область между Барандуином и Безбрежной [6]. Некогда Минхириат почти целиком была покрыт густыми лесами, сгинувшими из-за неумеренных вырубок, которые вели нуменорцы второй эпохи. [7]

     

  • Южное нагорье [8].

     

  • Заверть (Амон Сул) - гора на границе Кардолана и Рудаура [9].

     

  • Пустоши - такое название носила в конце Т.Э. местность, некогда бывшая северо-восточным Кардоланом [10].

     

  • Курганы (Могильники, Тирн Гортад) [11].

     

  • Андраф - теснина, разделяющая Курганы (Могильники) и Южное нагорье [18].

   Известны два больших кардоланских леса: Вековечный [12] на северо-западе княжества и лес мыса Эрин Ворн, на юго-западе [13].

   Число известных нам кардоланских рек невелико: четыре. Три из них - пограничные: Барандуин [14], Безбрежная (Агатуруш на адунаике) [15] и Буйная [16]. Четвертая река, Ветлянка [17], протекающая через Вековечный Лес, является притоком Барандуина.

   Из кардоланских городов мы можем назвать два (и оба пограничных): Тарбад [19] и Пригорье [20].

   По землям Кардолана проходили следующие известные нам дороги:

  • Великий Западный Тракт [21], являвшийся (приблизительной) северной границей княжества. Кардолану принадлежал отрезок от Большого Каменного Моста (через Барандуин) [22] до Последнего Моста (через Буйную) [23].

     

  • Княжеский Тракт [24], соединявший Арнор и Гондор. Кардолану принадлежал отрезок от Каменистого Брода [25] до Тарбада (Тарбадского моста).

   Соседями Кардолана были Архедан (граница по р. Барандуин и отрезку Великого Западного Тракта от Большого Моста до Буреломного Угорья [26]), Рудаур (граница по р. Бурная и отрезку Великого Западного Тракта от Буреломного Угорья до Последнего Моста [27]) и Гондор (граница по р. Безбрежная от Тарбада до устья [28]).

   С Гондором Кардолан поддерживал постоянную связь. Оба государства были хорошо осведомлены о внутреннем положении дел друг друга [60].

    История

   Образование княжества.

   До IX в. Т.Э. Кардолан был провинцией (кв. ланн, вс. суза) Арнора [29]. После cмерти Эарендура Арнорского [30] государство из-за несогласий между его сыновьями было разделено на три части: Архедан, Рудаур и Кардолан [31].

   Междоусобные войны (IX-XIV в.в.)

   В период со второй половины IX в. по первую половину XIV в. Т.Э Кардолан нередко враждовал с Археданом и Рудауром [32]. Причин распрей было много: оспаривалось великое княжение [33], право владения теми или иными землями, сокровищами и т.д. Спорной территорией являлось Буреломное Угорье и земли между ним и Пригорьем [34]. Особый интерес княжеств вызывала башня на Заверти [35], стоявшая на границе их владений, ибо в этой башне хранился главный палантир Северного Княжества [36]; два других арнорских палантира находились во власти Архедана (на Башенных Холмах и в Аннуминасе [37]).

   Вообще, повесть об этих войнах (как и почти вся история Кардолана) хорошо отражена в рассказе Тома Бомбадила:

"Хоббиты услышали о великих Могильниках и зеленых курганах, о холмах, увенчанных белыми коронами из зазубренных камней, и земляных пещерах в тайных глубинах между холмами. Блеяли овцы. Воздвигались высокие стены, образуя могучие крепости и мощные многобашенные твердыни; их владыки яростно враждовали друг с другом, и юное солнце багрово блистало на жаждущих крови клинках. Победы сменялись разгромами, с грохотом рушились башни, горели горделивые замки, и плямя взлетало в небеса. Золото осыпало усыпальницы мертвых царей, смыкались каменные своды, их забрасывали землей, а над прахом поверженных царств вырастала густая трава. С вотока приходили кочевники, снова блеяли над гробницами овцы - и опять подступала пустошь. Из далекого далека надвигалась необоримая Тьма, и кости хрустели в могилах. Умертвия бродили по пещерам, бренча драгоценными кольцами и вторя завываниям ветра мертвым звоном золотых ожерелий. А каменные короны на безмолвных холмах осклаблялись, щерились в лунном свете, как обломанные белые зубы".

"Suddenly Tom's talk left the woods and went leaping up the young stream, over bubbling waterfalls, over pebbles and worn rocks, and among small flowers in close grass and wet crannies, wandering at last up on to the Downs. They heard of the Great Barrows, and the green mounds, and the stone-rings upon the hills and in the hollows among the hills. Sheep were bleating in flocks. Green walls and white walls rose. There were fortresses on the heights. Kings of little kingdoms fought together, and the young Sun shone like fire on the red metal of their new and greedy swords. There was victory and defeat; and towers fell, fortresses were burned, and flames went up into the sky. Gold was piled on the biers of dead kings and queens; and mounds covered them, and the stone doors were shut; and the grass grew over all. Sheep walked for a while biting the grass, but soon the hills were empty again. A shadow came out of dark places far away, and the bones were stirred in the mounds. Barrow-wights walked in the hollow places with a clink of rings on cold fingers, and gold chains in the wind.' Stone rings grinned out of the ground like broken teeth in the moonlight". (LoTR, I)

   Но не будем забегать вперед и перейдем к следующему периоду кардоланской истории, сменившему эпоху междоусобиц.

   Ангмарские войны (XIV-XVII в.в.)

   Изначально Кардоланом правили князья из рода Элендила, потомки Эарендура Арнорского. Но в XIV в. династия прервалась [39]. Это событие послужило поводом к возобновлению археданскими владыками подзабытых было притязаний на верховенство [40]. Форностский князь Аргелеб I (1349-1356 г.г. Т.Э.) провозгласил свое право на власть во всем Арноре [41]. Разумеется, эти притязания были отвергнуты как Кардоланом, так и Рудауром [42]. Но весьма скоро, буквально в течении нескольких лет, Кардолану пришлось частично пересмотреть свои позиции [43]. Причиной явился новый фактор в эриадорской политике, нарушивший веками складывавшееся равновесие трех княжеств: Ангмар.

   Образование Ангмара следует отнести к концу XIII века [44]. Новое государство поразительно быстро вошло в силу и стало оказывать значительное влияние на положение в нуменорских княжествах еще до начала открытых боевых действий. Так, Ангмар заключил тайный союз с горцами Рудаура, и они, опираясь на до поры скрытую поддержку короля-чародея, произвели переворот и захватили власть в княжестве, свергнув рудаурских правителей из рода Элендила [45]. Для нуменорцев Рудаура это означало более или менее скорую гибель.

   Именно варвар, предводитель горцев (в качестве рудаурского владыки), а не нуменорский князь, оспорил притязания Аргелеба Форностского [45]. У Кардолана оставался небогатый выбор... вернее, не оставалось никакого: выступить вместе с дикарем-узурпатором (и его северным "союзником" с его орками и прочими злобными тварями) не представлялось возможным по многим и многим очевидным для нуменорцев причинам; остаться в стороне никак не удалось бы: слишком лакомым куском был для Архедана и Рудаура главный палантир Севера. (Будущее показало, что именно на Заверть направлялся основной удар). Оставалось искать дружбы старого соперника (Архедана), пользуясь тем, что и тому Кардолан как союзник был жизненно необходим. Пожалуй, самым большим препятствем к заключению союза были непризнаваемые Кардоланом претензии Форноста на верховенство. Поскольку в основных источниках (ВК) особо подчеркивалось лишь продиводействие Рудаура, предположу, что в конце концов договорившиеся Кардолан и Архедан пришли к следующему соглашению (нередкому и в нашей истории): Кардолан формально признал "первородство" "старшего брата"-Архедана, его "первенство среди равных" (это было тем легче, что первым государем Архедана действительно был старший из сыновей Эарендура [46]), но никаких фактических прав на власть над Кардоланом Форност не получал. Был заключен военный союз, совместно укреплялась восточная граница, Архедан получал доступ к башне Амон Сула [47].

   Следует заметить, что такая политика (попиравшая старые добрые традиции эпохи медоусобиц) не могла не вызвать недовольство у иных кардоланских нуменорцев. Не буду углубляться в домыслы, скажу лишь, что в позднейшее время раскол в Кардолане сыграл роковую роль в истории княжества. Но не будем забегать вперед.

   Таким образом, к середине XIV в. Т.Э. сложились две коалиции: Кардолан, Архедан (и поддерживающие их эльфы [48]) против Ангмара и Рудаура. Первая крупная война разразилась в 1356 г. Т.Э. [49]. Ангмар и Рудаур пытались захватить палантир Амон Сула, но Кардолан с помощью Архедана и Линдона отбросил врага от Буреломного Угорья. (В этой войне погиб археданский владыка Аргелеб I). Был атакован и Раздол. Некоторое время он находился в осаде (судя по всему, безрезультатной).

   После этой войны Кардолан и Архедан 53 года держали оборону по Буреломному Угорью, Великому Западному Тракту (отрезок от Угорья до Последноего Моста) и Буйной (от Последнего Моста до слияния с Бесноватой). Об этих временах рассказывал Арагорн:

"Дунаданцы на Буреломном Угорье не жили, а лишь держали оборону от чародейской напасти из Ангмара. Затем и была проложена эта тропа - скрытый подход к вершине. Когда-то на Заверти высилась дозорная башня под названьем Амон-Сул, или, на всеобщем языке, Ветрогорная. Враги сожгли и разрушили ее до основанья, остался только неровный каменный круг, словно венец над взлобьем древней горы. А башня была высокая и горделивая; во дни последнего союза на ней стоял сам Элендил, поджидая Гил-Гэлада" [50].

   Дальнейшие события развивались следующим образом: в 1409 г. Т.Э. большая ангмарская армия, форсировав Буйную, вторглась в Кардолан и осадила Заверть. Нуменорцы были разбиты, башня Амон-Сула сожжена и разрушена, но палантир был спасен археданцами, бежавшими в Форност [51]. Ангмарский удар пришелся и по его союзнику. Король-чародей счел необходимым перевести ангмаро-рудаурский союз на новую качественную ступень и попросту оккупировал Рудаур (ситуация и у нас нередкая). При этом были вырезаны еще остававшиеся там нуменорцы. [52] Археданский князь Арвелег I погиб. Но его сын, Арафор, с помощью эльфов Сэрдана отбросил врага от Форноста и Северного Нагорья [53].

   Неожиданный успех Ангмара объяснялся просто. Кардолан был расколот изменой. (Не всем был, видать, по душе союз со старинным противником - Археданом; да и чернокнижие издревле привлекало иных нуменорцев). Хотя "верным" из кардоланских нуменорцев и удалось устоять, страна была опустошена войной. "Верные" Кардолана остановили Ангмар лишь на рубеже Тирн Гортад [54]. Остановили, впрочем, дорогой ценой - в этой войне погиб последний князь Кардолана [55], но и король-чародей запомнил кардоланские курганы надолго [56]. Таким образом, нуменорцам удалось остановить врага на крайних рубежах: у Курганов - в Кардолане, у Форноста и Северного Нагорья - в Архедане. Но исход войны решился далеко от этих мест. Далеко на северо-востоке. Элронд, располагая силами Раздола, Линдона и Лориэна, нанес королю-чародею удар в спину, атаковав и заняв Ангмар [57].

   Последствия войны были страшными для Кардолана: государство была опустошено и обескровлено. Князь погиб, его родственники (судя по всему) погибли тоже (или пропали без вести). Последующие правители Кардолана княжеского титула себе не брали. Кстати, похожая ситуация несколькими веками позже повторилсь в Гондоре. Только в Кардолан государь не вернулся.

   Падение.

   Устоявшее под натиском короля-ведьмака княжество пало от ударов врага, против которого были бессильны зачарованные клинки кардоланских танов. В XVII в. Кардолан (точнее, его жители) был уничтожен пришедшим с юга поветрием [58].

   Население Кардолана. Помимо нуменорцев, Кардолан населяли люди, ведшие родословную как от племен, бывших в родстве с аданами, так и от иных народов [61]. Среди последних были враждебные нуменорцам (вроде рудаурских горцев) и дружественные им (как пригоряне [20]). Впрочем, большинство населения, полагаю, было весьма смешанного происхождения [69].

   Среди подданных князя были и невысоклики. В XI в. в Кардолан пришли лапитупы, в XII в. - беляки. Селились они в окрестностях Заверти, но в конце XIII века (уже перемешавшись между собой) стронулись на запад, к Пригорью [62]. Часть из них в начале XVII века мигрировала дальше на запад, в Архедан [63],[22].

   Можно еще отметить, что в болотах устья Безбрежной жили дикари, родственные друаданам лесов Анориена [64].

   Курганы. Курганы были священным для нуменорцев местом. Многие могильники были насыпаны еще праотцами аданов до прихода в Белерианд. Обычай хоронить здесь вождей и князей был возвратившимися нуменорцами возобновлен [65]:

"Gold was piled on the biers of dead kings and queens; and mounds covered them, and the stone doors were shut..."

   Хоронили вместе с сокровищами и оружием. Помнится, Том Бомбадил по одной драгоценной безделушке припомнил ее покойную хозяйку [66], но какие дела и отношения связывали его с кардоланскими владыками, мне неизвестно.

   Оружие. Борьба с Ангмаром привела к появлению в Кардолане оружия, способного противостоять "чародейской напасти" вроде назгулов и прочей прелести:

"...Таков был конец меча из Могильников, откованного нуменорцами. Но возрадовался бы тот арнорский оружейник, что медленно трудился над ним в незапамятные времена, ибо не было тогда у дунаданцев злее врага, чем ангмарский король-ведьмак. Иной клинок, пусть и в самой могучей руке, был бы ему нипочем, а этот жестоко ранил, вонзившись в призрачную плоть и разрушив лиходейское заклятье" [67].

   Орки боялись прикоснуться к этим клинкам: "...he [Ugluk] threw the things away as if they burned him"; "...Doubtless the Orcs despoiled them, but feared to keep the knives, knowing them for what they are: work of Westernesse, wound about with spells for the bane of Mordor".

   Кардоланские клинки отличала красно-золотая змейчатая насечка [68].

   Примечания.

[1] Называю Кардолан княжеством, ибо его государи носили княжеский (prince) титул: "last prince of Cardolan" (LoTR, App.A)

"...Arnor dwindles, is broken into petty princedoms..." [Letters, 131]

[2] "...Sindarin, the normal spoken language of Elendil's people..." (UT, III.I)

"The Faithful, therefore, used Sindarin, and in that tongue devised all names of places that they gave anew in Middle-earth. (And those that they adopted from older inhabitants they usually altered to fit the Sindarin style)". (DM)

[3] М. Каменкович, В. Каррик. (Комментарии к приложениям ВК, III).

[4] Справочник "Мир Толкина".

[5] "Cardolan was in the South, its bounds being the Brandywine, the Greyflood, and the Great Road". (LoTR, App.A)

[6] "...Minhiriath 'between the rivers', the region between the Brandywine and the Greyflood" (Silm, App.)

"The wide lands divided by the Gwathlo into the regions called by the Numenoreans Minhiriath ("Between the Rivers," Baranduin and Gwathlo) and Enedwaith ("Middle-folk") were mainly plains, open and mountainless. At the point of the confluence of Glanduin and Mitheithel [Hoarwell] the land was almost flat, and the waters become sluggish and tended to spread into fenland.But some hundred miles below Tharbad the slope increased. The Gwathlo, however, never became swift, and ships of smaller draught could without difficulty sail or be rowed as far as Tharbad". (UT, II.IV, App.D)

[7]

"In the time of the War of the Ring the lands were still in places well-wooded, especially in Minhiriath and in the south-east of Enedwaith; but most of the plains were grassland. Since the Great Plague of the year 1636 of the Third Age Minhiriath had been almost entirely deserted, though a few secretive hunter-folk lived in the woods <...>
But in the earlier days, at the time of the first explorations of the Numenoreans, the situation was quite different. Minhiriath and Enedwaith were occupied by vast and almost continuous forests, except in the central region of the Great Fens. <...>
The devastation wrought by the Numenoreans was incalculable. For long years these lands were their chief source of timber, not only for their ship-yards at Lond Daer and elsewhere, but also for Numenor itself. Shiploads innumerable passed west over the sea. The denuding of the lands was increased during the war in Eriador; for the exiled natives welcomed Sauron and hoped for his victory over the Men of the Sea. Sauron knew of the importance to his enemies of the Great Haven and its ship-yards. and he used these haters of Numenor as spies and guides for his raiders. He had not enough force to spare for any assault upon the forts at the Haven or along the banks of the Gwathlo. but his raiders made much havoc on the fringe of the forests, setting fire in the woods and burning many of the great wood-stores of the Numenoreans.
When Sauron was at last defeated and driven east out of Eriador most of the old forests had been destroyed. The Gwathlo flowed through a land that was far and wide on either bank a desert, treeless but untilled". (UT, II.IV, App.D)

[8] "South Downs - Hills in Eriador, south of Bree" (UT, Ind.)

[9] "Both Rhudaur and Cardolan desired to possess Amon Sul (Weathertop), which stood on the borders of their realms; for the Tower of Amon Sul held the chief Palantir of the North". (LoTR, App.A)

"Amon Sul - "Hill of the Wind",... hill at the southern end of the Weather Hills in Eriador. Called in Bree Weathertop". (UT, Ind.)

[10] "Now they had gone on far into the Lone-lands, where there were no people left, no inns, and the roads grew steadily worse. Not far ahead were dreary hills, rising higher and higher, dark with trees. On some of them were old castles with an evil look, as if they had been built by wicked people". (Hobbit, II)

Впрочем, нечто подобное Фродо видел и в Рудауре (местности до и после Последнего Моста оказались не лишенными сходства):

"The hobbits were glad to leave the cheerless lands and the perilous Road behind them; but this new country seemed threatening and unfriendly. As they went forward the hills about them steadily rose. Here and there upon heights and ridges they caught glimpses of ancient walls of stone, and the ruins of towers: they had an ominous look. Frodo, who was not walking, had time to gaze ahead and to think. He recalled Bilbo's account of his journey and the threatening towers on the hills north of the Road, in the country near the Troll's wood where his first serious adventure had happened. Frodo guessed that they were now in the same region, and wondered if by chance they would pass near the spot.
'Who lives in this land?' he asked. 'And who built these towers? Is this troll-country?'
'No!' said Strider. 'Trolls do not build. No one lives in this land. Men once dwelt here, ages ago; but none remain now. They became an evil people, as legends tell, for they fell under the shadow of Angmar. But all were destroyed in the war that brought the North Kingdom to its end. But that is now so long ago that the hills have forgotten them, though a shadow still lies on the land". (LoTR, I)

[11] "It is said that the mounds of Tyrn Gorthad, as the Barrowdowns were called of old, are very ancient, and that many were built in the days of the old world of the First Age by the forefathers of the Edain, before they crossed the Blue Mountains into Beleriand, of which Lindon is all that now remains. Those hills were therefore revered by the Dunedain after their return; and there many of their lords and Kings were buried. [Some say that the mound in which the Ring-bearer was imprisoned had been the grave of the last prince of Cardolan, who fell in the war of 1409.]'" (LoTR, App.A)

"Barrow-downs - Downs east of the Old Forest, on which were great burial mounds said to have been built in the First Age by the forefathers of the Edain before they entered Beleriand".
"Tyrn Gorthad - Sindarin name of the Barrow-downs" (UT, Ind)

[12] Old Forest. (LoTR)

[13] "...the dark woods of the great Cape of Eryn Vorn, south of the mouth of the Baranduin". (UT, II.IV, App.D)

"Eryn Vorn - "Dark Wood", the great cape on the coast of Minhiriath south of the mouth of Baranduin" (UT, Ind)

[14] "Baranduin - 'The Brown River' in Eriador, flowing into the Sea south of the Blue Mountains; the Brandywine of the Shire in The Lord of the Rings". (Silm, Ind.)

[15] "Gwathlo (Greyflood) - River formed by the junction of Mitheithel and Glanduin, the boundary between Minhiriath and Enedwaith" (UT, Ind)

"The Gwathlo was one of the few geographical names that became generally known to others than mariners in Numenor. and received an Adunaic translation. This was Agathurush". (UT, II.IV, App.D)

[16] "Mitheithel (Hoarwell) - River of Eriador flowing from the Ettendales to join the Briunen (Loudwater). Tributary of the Gwathlo". (UT, Ind)

[17] Withywindle (LoTR, ATB)

[18] "Andrath - "Long Climb", defile between the Barrow-downs and the South Downs through which the North-South Road (Greenway) passed" (UT, Ind)

[19] "Tharbad (from thara-pata 'crossway')" (Silm, App.)

"River-port and town where the North-South Road crossed the river Gwathlo, ruined and deserted at the time of the War of the Ring". (UT, Ind)

Основан нуменорцами во Вторую Эпоху.

But the great North-South Road, which was the chief route of communication between the Two Kingdoms except by sea, ran through it [Enedwaith] from Tharbad to the Fords of Isen (Ethraid Engrin). Before the decay of the North Kingdom and the disasters that befell Gondor, indeed until the coming of the Great Plague in Third Age 1636, both kingdoms shared an interest in this region, and together built and maintained the Bridge of Tharbad and the long causeways that carried the road to it on either side of the Gwathlo and Mitheithel across the fens in the plains of Minhiriath and Enedwaith.
A considerable garrison of soldiers, mariners and engineers had been kept there until the seventeenth century of the Third Age. But from then onwards the region fell quickly into decay; and long before the time of The Lord of the Rings had gone back into wild fenlands. When Boromir made his great journey from Gondor to Rivendell - the courage and hardihood required is not fully recognized in the narrative-the North-South Road no longer existed except for the crumbling remains of the causeways, by which a hazardous approach to Tharbad might be achieved, only to find ruins on dwindling mounds, and a dangerous ford formed by the ruins of the bridge, impassable if the river had not been there slow and shallow - but wide.
It may be noted that Tharbad is referred to as "a ruined town" in The Fellowship of the Ring II 3, and that Boromir in Lothlorien told that he lost his horse at Tharbad, at the fording of the Greyflood. In the Tale of Years the ruining and desertion of Tharbad is dated to the year 2912 of the Third Age, when great floods devastated Enedwaith and Minhiriath.
* In the early days of the kingdoms the most expeditious route from one to the other (except for great armaments) was found to be by sea to the ancient port at tile head at the estuary of the Gwathlo and so to the riverport of Tharbad, and thence by the Road. The ancient sea-port and its great quays were ruinous, but with long labour a port capable of receiving seagoing vessels had been made at Tharbad, and a fort raised there on great earthworks on both sides of the river, to guard the once famed Bridge of Tharbad. The ancient port was one of the earliest ports of the Numenуreans, begun by the renowned mariner-king Tar-Aldarion, and later enlarged and fortified. It was called Lond Daer Enedh, the Great Middle Haven (as being between Lindon in the North and Pelargir on the Anduin). [Author's note.] (UT, II.IV, App.D)
The Enedhwaith (or Central Wilderness) was shared by the North and South Kingdoms, but was never settled by Numenoreans owing to the hostility of the Gwathuirim (Dunlendings), except in the fortified town and haven about the great bridge over the Greyflood at Tharbad (Of Dwarves and Men)

[20] "...Cardolan (where later were Bree and the Barrowdowns) ... " (HoME XII)

[Dunlendings] were a remnant of the peoples that had dwelt in the vales of the White Mountains in ages past. <...> But in the Dark Years others had removed to the southern dales of the Misty Mountains; and thence some had passed into the empty lands as far north as the Barrow-downs. From them came the Men of Bree; but long before these had become subjects of the North Kingdom of Arnor and had taken up the Westron tongue. (LoTR, App.F)

[21] "The ancient East-West Road ran through the Shire to its end at the Grey Havens, and dwarves had always used it on their way to their mines in the Blue Mountains". (LoTR, I)

"... in those days the only Numenorean roads were the great road linking Gondor and Arnor, through Calenardhon, then north over the Gwathlo at Tharbad, and so at last to Fornost; and the East-West Road from the Grey Havens to Imladris. These roads crossed at a point [Bree] west of Amon Sul (Weathertop)..." (UT, III.I)

[22] "For it was in the one thousand six hundred and first year of the Third Age that the Fallohide brothers, Marcho and Blanco, set out from Bree; and having obtained permission from the high king at Fornost, they crossed the brown river Baranduin with a great following of Hobbits. They passed over the Bridge of Stonebows, that had been built in the days of the power of the North Kingdom, and they took ail the land beyond to dwell in, between the river and the Far Downs. All that was demanded of them was that they should keep the Great Bridge in repair, and all other bridges and roads, speed the king's messengers, and acknowledge his lordship". (LoTR, Prologue)

[23] "I am afraid we must go back to the Road here for a while,' said Strider. 'We have now come to the River Hoarwell, that the Elves call Mitheithel. It flows down out of the Ettenmoors, the troll-fells north of Rivendell, and joins the Loudwater away in the South. Some call it the Greyflood after that. It is a great water before it finds the Sea. There is no way over it below its sources in the Ettenmoors, except by the Last Bridge on which the Road crosses'". (LoTR, I)

"They crossed the Bridge in safety, hearing no sound but the water swirling against its three great arches". (LoTR, I)
"Fortutately the road went over an ancient stone bridge, for the river, swollen with the rains, came rushing down from the hills and mountains in the north". (Hobbit,II)

[24] "... in those days the only Numenorean roads were the great road linking Gondor and Arnor, through Calenardhon, then north over the Gwathlo at Tharbad, and so at last to Fornost; and the East-West Road from the Grey Havens to Imladris. These roads crossed at a point [Bree] west of Amon Sul (Weathertop)..." (UT, III.I)

"...the great North-South Road, which was the chief route of communication between the Two Kingdoms ..." (UT, II.IV.App.D).
"...great Royal Road..." (UT, III.V, App.(ii))

[25] "Sarn Ford - Partial translation of Sarn Athrad "Ford of Stones", ford over the Baranduin..." (UT, Ind.)

Историческое место: в 1700 г. (или в 1701 г.) В.Э. нуменорцы, освобождая Эриадор, разгромили здесь Саурона: "Sauron was driven away south-east after great slaughter at Sarn Ford (the crossing of the Baranduin)..."

[26] "Arthedain was in the North-west and included the land between Brandywine and Lune, and also the land north of the Great Road as far as the Weather Hills". (LoTR, App.A)

[27] "Rhudaur was in the North-east and lay between the Ettenmoors, the Weather Hills, and the Misty Mountains, but included also the Angle between the Hoarwell and the Loudwater". (LoTR, App.A)

[28] Вопрос о кардолано-гондорской границе связан с проблемой принадлежности Энедвайта. Источники говорят следующее:

"The land beyond, between the Gwathlo and the Isen (Sir Angren) was called Enedwaith ("Middle-folk"); it belonged to neither kingdom and received no permanent settlements of men of Numenorean origin. <...> indeed, until the coming of the Great Plague in Third Age 1636, both kingdoms shared an interest in this region..." (UT, II.IV, App.D)
"In ancient days the southern and eastern bounds of the North Kingdom had been the Greyflood; the western bounds of the South Kingdom was the Isen. To the land between (the Enedwaith or "middle region") few Numenoreans had ever come, and none had settled there. In the days of the Kings it was part of the realm of Gondor, but it was of little concern to them, except for the patrolling and upkeep of the great Royal Road..." (UT, III.V, App.(ii))

Полагаю, это надо понимать следующим образом: Арнор (до 861 г. Т.Э.) и Кардолан (до 1636г. Т.Э) делили с Гондором власть над этой местностью. После того, как Кардолан в XVII Т.Э. прекратил свое существование, Энедвайт формально оказался под властью Гондора, впрочем, ненадолго, до XXI века: "The Dunlendings suffered, like all the peoples of Arnor and Gondor, in the Great Plague of the years 1636-7 of the Third Age, but less than most, since they dwelt apart and had few dealings with other men. When the days of the Kings ended (1975-2050) and the waning of Gondor began, they ceased in fact to be subjects of Gondor; the Royal Road was unkept in Enedwaith, and the Bridge of Tharbad becoming ruinous was replaced only by a dangerous ford". (UT, III.V, App.(ii))

[29] "Elendil was cast up by the waves in the land of Lindon, and he was befriended by Gil-galad. Thence he passed up the River Lhun, and beyond Ered Luin he established his realm, and his people dwelt in many places in Eriador about the courses of the Lhun and the Baranduin; but his chief city was at Annuminas beside the water of Lake Nenuial. At Fornost upon the North Downs also the Numenуreans dwelt, and in Cardolan, and in the hills of Rhudaur; and towers they raised upon Emyn Beraid and upon Amon Sul; and there remain many barrows and ruined works in those places, but the towers of Emyn Beraid still look towards the sea". (Silm)

"Cardolan - Region in the south of Eriador, a part of the Kingdom of Arnor". (Silm, Ind.)

[30] 861 г. Т.Э. (ВК, Пр.А); "861 Death of Earendur, and division of Arnor". (LoTR, App.B)

[31] "After Earendur, owing to dissensions among his sons their realm was divided into three: Arthedain, Rhudaur, and Cardolan". (LoTR, App.A)

[32] "There was often strife between the kingdoms, which hastened the waning of the Dunedain" (LoTR, App.A)

Ср. рассказ Фарамира: "Некогда нуменорцы расселились по всему приморью и в глубь Материка, но злое безумие снедало их царства. Одни предались лиходейству и чернокнижию, другие упивались праздностью и роскошью, третьи воевали между собой, пока их обескровленные уделы не захватили дикари".
"The Men of Numenor were settled far and wide on the shores and seaward regions of the Great Lands, but for the most part they fell into evils and follies. Many became enamoured of the Darkness and the black arts; some were given over wholly to idleness and ease, and some fought among themselves, until they were conquered in their weakness by the wild men".(LoTR, II)

[33] "...the Kingdom became divided and the high-kingship was in dispute..." (UT, IV.III)

[34] "The chief matter of debate was the possession of the Weather Hills and the land westward towards Bree" (LoTR, App.A)

[35] "А башня была высокая и горделивая; во дни Последнего Союза на ней стоял сам Элендил, поджидая Гил-Гэлада".

"But long before, in the first days of the North Kingdom, they built a great watch-tower on Weathertop, Amon Sul they called it. It was burned and broken, and nothing remains of it now but a tumbled ring, like a rough crown on the old hill's head. Yet once it was tall and fair. It is told that Elendil stood there watching for the coming of Gil-galad out of the West, in the days of the Last Alliance".

[36] "Both Rhudaur and Cardolan desired to possess Amon Sul (Weathertop), which stood on the borders of their realms; for the Tower of Amon Sul held the chief Palantir of the North, and the other two were both in the keeping of Arthedain". (LoTR, App.A)

Следует отметить, что Заверть стояла не только близь границ Кардолана и Рудаура, но и Архедана (см. [26]).
"The kings of Arthedain also claim to be guardians of the palantir of Amon Sul, though this is outside their territory, standing on the borders of Cardolan and Rhudaur between whom also it is a matter of bitter dispute". (HoME XII)
"... the largest and most powerful and the one through which communication with Gondor was mainly conducted". (UT, IV.III)

[37] "In the house of Elrond it is told that they were at Annuminas, and Amon Sul, and Elendil's Stone was on the Tower Hills ..." (LoTR, II)

 

[39] "Толкиеновская энциклопедия" указывает конкретную дату: 1320г. Т.Э. Откуда составители взяли эту информацию, мне неизвестно. Так что, достоверной ее счесть нельзя. В любом случае, датировка прерывания линии Элендила первой половиной XIV в. Т.Э. будет, на мой взгляд, верной.

[40] "In the days of Argeleb son of Malvegil [1349-1356], since no descendants of Isildur remained in the other kingdoms, the kings of Arthedain again claimed the lordship of all Arnor" (LoTR, App.A)

[41] "After Malvegil, the king at Fornost again claimed lordship over the whole of Arnor, and took names with the prefix ar(a) in token of this" (LoTR, App.A)

"... prefix aran, ar(a) signifying 'high king". (HoME XII)

[42] "The lesser realms resist the claim of the King at Fornost to be overlord of all the former lands of Arnor". (HoME XII)

[43] Быть может, позиции не "пересматривались" даже, а просто в результате переворота сменилась власть, и, соответственно, направление политики.

[44] "It was in the beginning of the reign of Malvegil of Arthedain [1272-1349] that evil came to Arnor. For at that time the realm of Angmar arose in the North beyond the Ettenmoors. Its lands lay on both sides of the Mountains, and there were gathered many evil men, and Orcs, and other fell creatures. [The lord of that land was known as the Witch-king, but it was not known until later that he was indeed the chief of the Ringwraiths, who came north with the purpose of destroying the Dunedain in Arnor, seeing hope in their disunion, while Gondor was strong.]"

"c. 1300 <...> The Nazgul reappear. The chief of these comes north to Angmar... (LoTR, App.B)

[45] Эти события следует отнести к началу-первой половине XIV в.в. Т.Э.

"The claim was resisted by Rhudaur. There the Dunedain were few, and power had been seized by an evil lord of the Hill-men, who was in secret league with Angmar". (LoTR, App.A)

[46] Amlaith of Fornost (eldest son of Earendur) (LoTR, App.A).

[47] "Argeleb ... fortified the Weather Hills... Arveleg son of Argeleb, with the help of Cardolan and Lindon, drove back his enemies from the Hills; and for many years Arthedain and Cardolan held in force a frontier along the Weather Hills, the Great Road, and the lower Hoarwell". (LoTR, App.A)

Остатки нуменорских укреплений на заверти видели хоббиты:
"Along the crest of the ridge the hobbits could see what looked to be the remains of green-grown walls and dikes, and in the clefts there still stood the ruins of old works of stone". (LoTR, I)

[48] "... the kings of Arthedain ... still maintained their friendship with the Eldar of Lindon and Imladris". (HoME XII)

[49] "Argeleb ... fortified the Weather Hills; but he was slain in battle with Rhudaur and Angmar. Arveleg son of Argeleb, with the help of Cardolan and Lindon, drove back his enemies from the Hills; and for many years Arthedain and Cardolan held in force a frontier along the Weather Hills, the Great Road, and the lower Hoarwell. It is said that at this time Rivendell was besieged". (LoTR, App.A).

"1356 King Argeleb I slain in battle with Rhudaur". (LoTR, App.B)
"... the enemy tries to seize the palantir of Amon Sul". (HoME XII)

[50]

"In the morning they found, for the first time since they had left the Chetwood, a track plain to see. They turned right and followed it southwards. It ran cunningly, taking a line that seemed chosen so as to keep as much hidden as possible from the view, both of the hill-tops above and of the flats to the west. It dived into dells, and hugged steep banks; and where it passed over flatter and more open ground on either side of it there were lines of large boulders and hewn stones that screened the travellers almost like a hedge.
'I wonder who made this path, and what for,' said Merry, as they walked along one of these avenues, where the stones were unusually large and closely set. 'I am not sure that I like it: it has a - well, rather a barrow-wightish look. Is there any barrow on Weathertop?'
'No. There is no barrow on Weathertop, nor on any of these hills,' answered Strider. 'The Men of the West did not live here; though in their latter days they defended the hills for a while against the evil that came out of Angmar. This path was made to serve the forts along the walls. But long before, in the first days of the North Kingdom, they built a great watch-tower on Weathertop, Amon Sыl they called it. It was burned and broken, and nothing remains of it now but a tumbled ring, like a rough crown on the old hill's head. Yet once it was tall and fair. It is told that Elendil stood there watching for the coming of Gil-galad out of the West, in the days of the Last Alliance". (LoTR, I)

[51] "A great host came out of Angmar in 1409, and crossing the river entered Cardolan and surrounded Weathertop. The Dunedain were defeated and Arveleg was slain. The Tower of Amon Sul was burned and razed; but the palantнr was saved and carried back in retreat to Fornost..." (LoTR, App.A)

"1409 The Witch-king of Angmar invades Arnor. King Arveleg I slain. Fornost and Tyrn Gorthad are defended. The Tower of Amon Sul destroyed". (LoTR, App.B)

[52] "Rhudaur was occupied by evil Men subject to Angmar, and the Dunedain that remained there were slain or fled west". (LoTR, App.A)

"In Rhudaur an evil folk, workers of sorcery, subjects of Angmar, slay the remnants of the Dunedain and build dark forts in the hills". (HoME XII).

[53] "Araphor son of Arveleg was not yet full-grown, but he was valiant, and with aid from Cirdan he repelled the enemy from Fornost and the North Downs". (LoTR, App.A)

[54] "Cardolan was ravaged... A remnant of the faithful among the Dunedain of Cardolan also held out in Tyrn Gorthad (the Barrowdowns), or took refuge in the Forest behind". (LoTR, App.A)

[55] "... last prince of Cardolan, who fell in the war of 1409". (LoTR, App.A)

[56] "He [Witch-king] had known something of the country long ago, in his wars with the Dunedain, and especially of the Tyrn Gorthad of Cardolan..." (UT, III.IV)

[57] "It is said that Angmar was for a time subdued by the Elvenfolk coming from Lindon and from Rivendell, for Elrond brought help over the Mountains out of Lorien". (LoTR, App.A)

[58] "In the days of Argeleb II the plague came into Eriador from the Southeast, and most of the people of Cardolan perished, especially in Minhiriath... It was at this time that an end came of the Dunedain of Cardolan, and evil spirits out of Angmar and Rhudaur entered into the deserted mounds and dwelt there". (LoTR, App.A)

"1636-7 ... The plague spreads north and west, and many parts of Eriador become desolate". (LoTR, App.B)
"The plague lessens in deadliness as it goes north; but Cardolan becomes desolate". (HoME XII)
"Since the Great Plague of the year 1636 of the Third Age Minhiriath had been almost entirely deserted, though a few secretive hunter-folk lived in the woods". (UT, II.IV, App.D)
"In the Plague it would seem that the only Hobbit communities to survive were those in the far North-west at Bree and in the Shire". (HoME XII)

 

[60] "The Kingdoms of the North and the South remained in close communication at that time (XI-XII в.в), and indeed until much later, and each was well informed of all events in the other region, especially of the migration of people of all kinds". (UT,III.V(ii))

[61] "When they [хоббиты] entered Eriador [XI в. Т.Э] ... Men were still numerous there, both Numenoreans and other Men related to the Atani, beside remnants of Men of evil kinds, hostile to the Kings. But the Common Speech (of Numenorean origin) was in general use there, even after the decay of the North Kingdom. In Bilbo's time great areas of Eriador were empty of Men. The desolation had begun in the Great Plague (soon after the Hobbits' occupation of the Shire), and was hastened by the final fall and disappearance of the North Kingdom. In the Plague it would seem that the only Hobbit communities to survive were those in the far North-west at Bree and in the Shire". (DM)

[62]

"1050 The Periannath are first mentioned in records, with the coming of the Harfoots to Eriador
c. 1150 The Fallohides enter Eriador. The Stoors come over the Redhorn Pass and move to the Angle, or to Dunland.
c. 1300 <...> The Periannath migrate westward; many settle at Bree". (LoTR, App.B)
"c.1300. The western Periannath, now for the most part mingled together, move westward from the region of Amon Sul (Weathertop)... Their chief settlement was on and about the Hill of Bree". (HoME XII)

[63] "1601 Many Periannath migrate from Bree, and are granted land beyond Baranduin by Argeleb II". (LoTR, App. B)

"1601. (S.R.1) A host of Periannath migrates from Bree westward, and crosses the R. Baranduin (Brandywine). The land beyond, between the Baranduin and Emyn Beraid, had been a demesne of the Kings of Arnor, where they had both chases and rich farms; but they were now untended and falling into wilderness. The king Argeleb II therefore allowed the Periannath to settle there, for they were good husbandmen. They became his subjects in name but were virtually independent and ruled by their own chieftains". (HoME XII)

[64] "In the marshlands of the mouths of Greyflood and Isen lived a few tribes of "Wild Men," fishers and fowlers, but akin in race and speech to the Druedain of the woods of Anorien". (UT,III.V(ii))

[65] "It is said that the mounds of Tyrn Gorthad, as the Barrowdowns were called of old, are very ancient, and that many were built in the days of the old world of the First Age by the forefathers of the Edain, before they crossed the Blue Mountains into Beleriand, of which Lindon is all that now remains. Those hills were therefore revered by the Dunedain after their return; and there many of their lords and Kings were buried". (LoTR, App.A)

[66] "He chose for himself from the pile a brooch set with blue stones, many-shaded like flax-flowers or the wings of blue butterflies. He looked long at it, as if stirred by some memory, shaking his head, and saying at last: 'Here is a pretty toy for Tom and for his lady! Fair was she who long ago wore this on her shoulder. Goldberry shall wear it now, and we will not forget her!". (LoTR, I)

[67] "So passed the sword of the Barrow-downs, work of Westernesse. But glad would he have been to know its fate who wrought it slowly long ago in the North-kingdom when the Dunedain were young, and chief among their foes was the dread realm of Angmar and its sorcerer king. No other blade, not though mightier hands had wielded it, would have dealt that foe a wound so bitter, cleaving the undead flesh, breaking the spell that knit his unseen sinews to his will". (LoTR. III)

[68] "For each of the hobbits he chose a dagger, long, leaf-shaped, and keen, of marvellous workmanship, damasked with serpent-forms in red and gold. They gleamed as he drew them from their black sheaths, wrought of some strange metal, light and strong, and set with many fiery stones. Whether by some virtue in these sheaths or because of the spell that lay on the mound, the blades seemed untouched by time, unrusted, sharp, glittering in the sun.

'Old knives are long enough as swords for hobbit-people,' he said. 'Sharp blades are good to have, if Shire-folk go walking, east, south, or far away into dark and danger.' Then he told them that these blades were forged many long years ago by Men of Westernesse: they were foes of the Dark Lord, but they were overcome by the evil king of Carn Dum in the Land of Angmar". (LoTR, I)

"He drew his sword and looked at it, and the intertwining shapes of red and gold; and the flowing characters of Numenor glinted like fire upon the blade". (LoTR, III)
"... the young Sun shone like fire on the red metal of their new and greedy swords". (LoTR, I)

[69] "The might and lore and the life-span of the Numenoreans (or Dunedain as they were called by the Elves) also waned as the years passed and their blood became mingled with that of lesser Men". (HoME XII)

 


   Основные сведения по Кардолану содержатся в ВК, Пр.А.; мельком он был упомянут в UT и RPTE; сведениями черновиков (НоМЕ XII) я пользовался осторожно, отбирая лишь непротиворечащие ВК. Кое-какие косвеные сведения можно извлечь из "Хоббита".

Источник - Арда-на-куличках.

Добавить комментарий


Защитный код
Обновить

zzzzzzzz